Spoliansky was born into a musical family in Białystock and after the birth of his sister the family moved to Warsaw, and later Kalisz. After the early death of his mother, the family relocated to Vienna.
Spoliansky's early musical education in piano, violin and cello was continued in Dresden and at the age of ten he made his public debut. Shortly thereafter his father died and Spoliansky moved to Königsberg (Prussia). In 1914 however as a result of the war he had to flee to Berlin.
Spoliansky worked in a coffeehouse as a pianist in order to continue his musical education and in addition he worked as a composer and pianist in a Russian émigré cabaret.
In 1933 Spoliansky emigrated to London, where he began a second career as a film composer. His naturalisation as a British national succeeded in large part thanks to "Heute Nacht Oder Nie" from the film Das Lied einer Nacht (1932), which made Spoliansky world renowned.
Among his very best songs were those he wrote for Paul Robeson, featured in the films Sanders of the River (1935) and King Solomon's Mines (1937).
Spoliansky died in London.
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